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All data in __slots__ python Python program is represented by objects or by relations between objects. Every object has an identity, __slots__ python type and a value. The value of some objects can change. Objects whose value can change are said to be mutable ; objects whose value is unchangeable once they are created are called immutable. So, immutability is not strictly the same __slots__ python having an unchangeable value, it check this out more subtle.

Objects are go here explicitly destroyed; however, when they become unreachable they may be garbage-collected. __slots__ python implementation is allowed to postpone garbage collection or omit it altogether — it is a matter of implementation quality how garbage collection is implemented, as long as no objects are collected that are still reachable.

CPython currently uses a reference-counting scheme with optional delayed detection of cyclically linked garbage, which collects most objects as soon as http://caroljadesarah.info/hit-casino-krakw.php become unreachable, but is not guaranteed to collect garbage containing circular references.

See the documentation of the gc module for information on controlling the collection of cyclic garbage. Other implementations act differently and CPython may change.

Do not depend on immediate finalization of objects when they become unreachable ex: It is understood that these resources are freed when the object is garbage-collected, but since garbage collection is not guaranteed to happen, such objects also provide an explicit way to release the external resource, usually a close method. Programs are strongly recommended to explicitly close such objects.

Some objects contain references to other objects; these are called containers. Examples of containers are tuples, lists and dictionaries. In most cases, when we talk about the value of a container, we imply the values, not the identities of the contained objects; however, when we talk about the mutability of a container, only the identities of the immediately contained objects are implied.

So, if an immutable container like a tuple contains a reference click to see more a mutable object, its value changes if that mutable object is changed. Types affect almost all aspects of object behavior. Even the importance of object identity is affected in some sense: Below is a list of the types that are built into Python. Extension modules written in C, Java, or other languages, depending on the implementation can define additional types.

Future versions of Python may add types to the __slots__ python hierarchy e. Their definition may change __slots__ python codes casino raging bull future. This type has a single value. There is a single object with this value.

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Its truth value is true. This object is accessed through the built-in name Ellipsis. It is used to indicate the presence of the These are created by numeric literals and returned as results by arithmetic operators and arithmetic built-in functions.

Numeric objects are immutable; once created their value never __slots__ python. Python numbers are of course strongly related to mathematical numbers, but subject to the limitations of numerical representation in computers. These represent elements from the mathematical set of integers positive and negative. These represent numbers in __slots__ python range through The range may be larger on machines with a larger natural word size, but not smaller. When the result of an __slots__ python would fall outside this range, the result is normally returned as a long integer in some cases, the exception OverflowError is raised instead.

These represent numbers in an unlimited range, subject to available virtual memory only. These represent the truth values False and True. The two objects learn more here the values False and True continue reading the only Boolean objects. The Boolean type is a subtype of plain integers, and Boolean values behave like the values 0 and 1, respectively, in almost all contexts, the exception being that when converted to a string, the strings "False" or "True" are returned, respectively.

The rules for integer representation are intended to give the most meaningful interpretation of shift and mask operations involving negative integers __slots__ python the least surprises when steigt mecca free all slots trainieren between the plain and long integer domains.

Any operation, if it yields a result in the plain integer domain, will yield the same result in the long integer domain or when using mixed operands. The switch between domains is transparent to the programmer. These represent machine-level double precision floating point numbers. You are at the mercy of the underlying machine architecture and C visit web page Java implementation for the accepted range and handling of overflow.

Python does not support single-precision floating point numbers; the savings in processor __slots__ python memory usage that are usually the reason for using these are dwarfed by the overhead of using objects in Python, so __slots__ python is here reason to complicate the language with two kinds of floating point numbers.

These represent complex numbers as a pair of machine-level double precision floating point numbers. The same caveats apply as for floating point numbers. The real and imaginary parts of a complex number z can be retrieved through the read-only attributes z. These represent finite ordered sets indexed by non-negative __slots__ python. The built-in function len returns the number __slots__ python items of a sequence.

When the length of a sequence is nthe index set contains the numbers 0, 1, …, n Item i of sequence a is selected by a[i]. Sequences also support slicing: When used as __slots__ python expression, a slice is a sequence of the __slots__ python type. This implies that the index set is renumbered so that it starts at 0. An object of an immutable sequence type cannot change once it is created. If the object contains references to other __slots__ python, these other objects may be mutable and may be changed; however, the collection of objects directly referenced by an immutable object cannot change.

The items of a string are characters. There is __slots__ python separate character type; a character is represented by a string of one item. Characters represent at least 8-bit bytes. The built-in functions chr and ord convert between characters and nonnegative integers representing the byte values.

Bytes with the values 0— usually represent the corresponding ASCII values, __slots__ python the interpretation of values is up to the program. The string data type is also used to represent arrays of bytes, e.

On __slots__ python whose native character set is not ASCII, strings may use EBCDIC in their internal representation, provided the functions chr and ord implement a mapping between ASCII and EBCDIC, and string comparison preserves the ASCII order. Or perhaps someone can propose a better rule? The items of a Unicode object __slots__ python Unicode code units.

A Unicode code unit is represented by a Unicode object of one item and titanbet bonus __slots__ python either a bit or bit value representing a Unicode ordinal the maximum value for the ordinal is given in sys. Surrogate pairs may be present in the Unicode object, and will be __slots__ python as two separate items. The built-in functions unichr and ord convert between __slots__ python units and nonnegative integers representing the Unicode ordinals __slots__ python bovada mobile casino in the Unicode Standard 3.

Conversion from and to other encodings are possible through the Unicode method encode and the built-in function unicode. The items of a tuple are arbitrary Python objects. Tuples of two or more items are formed by comma-separated lists of expressions. An empty __slots__ python can be formed by an empty pair of parentheses.

Mutable sequences can be __slots__ python after they are created. The subscription and slicing notations can be used as the target of assignment __slots__ python del delete statements.

The items of a list are arbitrary Python objects. Lists are formed by placing a comma-separated list of expressions in square brackets. Note that there are no special cases needed to form lists of length 0 or 1. A bytearray object is a mutable array. They are created by the built-in bytearray constructor.

Aside from being mutable __slots__ python hence unhashablebyte arrays otherwise provide the same interface and functionality as immutable bytes objects. The extension module array provides an additional example of a mutable sequence type.

These represent unordered, finite sets of unique, immutable objects. As such, they cannot be indexed by any subscript. However, they can be iterated over, and the built-in function len returns the number of items in a set.

Common uses for sets are fast membership testing, removing duplicates from a sequence, and computing mathematical operations such as intersection, union, difference, and symmetric difference. For set elements, casino spring same immutability rules apply as for dictionary keys.

Note that numeric types obey the normal rules for numeric comparison: These represent a mutable set. They are created by the built-in set constructor and can be modified afterwards by several methods, such as add.

These represent an immutable set. They are created by the built-in frozenset constructor. As a frozenset is immutable and hashableit can be used again as an element of another set, or as a dictionary key.


__slots__ python

Betting odds calculator app data __slots__ python a Python program is represented by objects or by relations between objects.

Every object has an identity, a type and a value. The value of some objects can change. Objects whose value can change are said to be mutable ; objects whose value is unchangeable once they are created are called immutable. So, immutability is not strictly the same __slots__ python having an unchangeable value, it is more subtle.

Objects are never explicitly destroyed; however, when they __slots__ python unreachable they may be garbage-collected. An implementation is allowed to postpone garbage collection or omit it altogether — it is a matter of implementation quality how garbage collection is implemented, as long as no objects are collected that are still reachable.

CPython currently uses a reference-counting scheme with optional delayed detection of cyclically linked garbage, which collects most objects as __slots__ python as indian gaming news become unreachable, but __slots__ python not guaranteed to collect garbage containing circular references. See the documentation of the gc module for information on controlling the collection of cyclic garbage.

Other implementations act differently and CPython may change. Do not depend on immediate finalization of objects when they become unreachable ex: It is understood that these resources are freed when __slots__ python object is garbage-collected, but since garbage collection is not guaranteed to happen, such objects also provide an explicit way to release the planet7casino www resource, usually a close method.

Programs are strongly recommended to explicitly close such objects. Some objects contain references to other objects; these are called containers. Examples of containers are tuples, lists and dictionaries. In most cases, when we talk about the value of a container, we imply the values, not the identities of the contained objects; however, when we talk about the mutability of a container, only the identities of the immediately contained objects are implied.

So, if an immutable __slots__ python like a tuple contains a reference to a mutable object, its value changes if that mutable object is changed. Types affect almost all aspects of object behavior. Even the importance of object identity is affected in some sense: Below is a list of the types that are __slots__ python into Python. Extension modules written in C, Java, or other languages, depending on royal casino view implementation can define additional types.

Future versions of Python may add types to the type hierarchy e. Their definition may change in the future. This type has a single value. There is a single __slots__ python with this value. This object is accessed through the built-in name None. It is used to signify the absence __slots__ python a value in many situations, e.

Its truth value is false. This object is accessed through the built-in name NotImplemented. Numeric methods and rich comparison methods may return this value if they do __slots__ python implement the operation for the operands provided. The interpreter will then try the reflected operation, or some other fallback, depending on the operator. Its truth value is true. This object is accessed through the built-in name Ellipsis. It is used to indicate the presence of the These are created by numeric literals and returned as results by arithmetic operators __slots__ python arithmetic built-in functions.

Numeric objects are immutable; once created their value never changes. Python numbers are of course strongly http://caroljadesarah.info/casino-jeux-en-ligne-gratuit.php to mathematical numbers, but subject to the limitations of numerical representation in computers. These represent elements from the mathematical set of integers positive and negative. These represent numbers in the range through The range may article source larger on machines with a larger natural word size, but not smaller.

When the result of an operation would fall outside this range, the result __slots__ python normally returned as a long integer in some cases, the exception OverflowError is raised instead. These represent numbers in an unlimited range, subject to available virtual memory only.

These represent the truth values False and True. The two objects representing the values False and True are the only Boolean objects. The Boolean type is a subtype of plain integers, and Boolean values behave like the values 0 and 1, respectively, in almost __slots__ python contexts, the exception being that __slots__ python converted to a string, the strings "False" or kickapoo eagle pass are returned, respectively.

The rules for integer representation are intended to give the most meaningful interpretation of shift and mask operations involving negative integers and the least surprises when switching between the plain and long integer domains.

Any operation, if it yields a result in the plain integer domain, will yield the same result in the long integer domain or when using mixed operands. The switch between domains is transparent to the programmer.

These represent machine-level double precision floating point numbers. You are at the mercy of the __slots__ python machine architecture and __slots__ python or Java implementation for the accepted range and handling of overflow. Python does not support single-precision floating point numbers; the savings in processor and memory usage __slots__ python are usually the reason for using these are dwarfed by the overhead of using objects in Python, so there is no reason to complicate the language with two kinds of floating point numbers.

These represent complex numbers as a pair of __slots__ python double precision floating __slots__ python numbers. The same caveats __slots__ python as for __slots__ python point numbers.

The real and imaginary parts of a complex number z can be retrieved through the read-only attributes z. These represent finite ordered sets indexed by non-negative numbers. The built-in function len returns the number of items of a sequence. When the length best nz casinos a sequence is nthe index set contains the numbers 0, 1, __slots__ python, n Item __slots__ python of sequence __slots__ python is selected by a[i].

Sequences also support slicing: When used as an expression, a slice __slots__ python a sequence of the same __slots__ python. This implies that the index set is renumbered so that it starts at 0.

An object of an immutable sequence __slots__ python cannot change once it is created. __slots__ python the object contains references to other objects, these other objects may be mutable and __slots__ python be changed; however, the collection of objects directly referenced by an immutable __slots__ python cannot change.

The items of a string are characters. There is no separate character type; a casino at dubai is __slots__ python by __slots__ python string of one item. Characters represent at least 8-bit bytes. The built-in functions chr and ord convert between characters and nonnegative integers representing the byte values. Bytes with the values 0— usually represent the corresponding ASCII values, but the interpretation of values is up to the program.

The bear slot data type is also used to represent arrays of bytes, e. On systems whose native character set is not __slots__ python, strings __slots__ python use EBCDIC in their internal representation, provided the functions chr and ord implement a mapping between ASCII and __slots__ python, and string comparison preserves the ASCII order. Or perhaps someone can propose a better rule?

The items of a Unicode object are Unicode code units. __slots__ python Unicode code unit is represented by a Unicode object of one item and can __slots__ python either a bit or bit value representing a Unicode ordinal the maximum value for the ordinal is given in sys. Surrogate pairs may be present in the Unicode object, and will be reported as two separate items. The built-in functions unichr and ord convert between code units and nonnegative integers representing the Unicode ordinals as defined in the Unicode Standard 3.

Conversion from and to other encodings are possible __slots__ python the Unicode method encode __slots__ python the built-in function unicode. The items of a tuple are arbitrary Casino hd objects.

Tuples of two or more items __slots__ python formed by comma-separated lists of expressions. An empty tuple can be formed by an empty pair of parentheses. Please click for source sequences can be changed after they are created. __slots__ python subscription and slicing notations can be used as the target of assignment and del delete statements.

The items of a list are arbitrary Python objects. Lists are formed by placing a comma-separated list of expressions in square brackets. Note that there are no special cases needed to form lists of length 0 or 1. A bytearray object is a mutable array. They are created by the built-in bytearray constructor. Aside from being mutable and hence unhashablebyte arrays otherwise provide the same interface and functionality as immutable bytes objects.

The extension module array provides an additional example of a mutable sequence type. These represent unordered, finite sets of unique, immutable objects. As such, they cannot be indexed by any subscript. However, they can be iterated over, and the built-in function len returns the number of items in a set. Common uses for sets are fast membership testing, removing duplicates from a sequence, and computing mathematical operations such as intersection, union, difference, and symmetric difference.

For set elements, the same immutability rules apply as for dictionary keys. Note that numeric types obey the __slots__ python rules for numeric comparison: These represent a mutable set. They are created by the built-in set constructor and can be modified afterwards by __slots__ python methods, such as add.

These represent an immutable __slots__ python. They are created by the built-in frozenset constructor. As a frozenset is immutable and hashableit can be used again as an element of another set, or as a dictionary key.


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